Modulus-286 Kit (Limited Edition)2×65W (8Ω), 2×100W (4Ω) @ 0.00028% THD
The Modulus-286 Kit allows you to build a high-performance amplifier in a very small package for a very competitive price. As the name indicates, the Modulus-286 Kit uses two Modulus-286 amplifier modules along with a custom made Connex Electronic SMPS300RE power supply to form a high-end amplifier that provides 2 × 65 W (8 Ω) and 2 × 105 W (4 Ω) at distortion levels well below audible. The two channels may be bridged to form a mono amplifier capable of delivering 140 W into 8 Ω. Bridged operation into 4 Ω is not recommended.
The rear panel of the amplifier features XLR inputs and speakON outputs. The outputs are also provided on 5-way binding posts placed on ¾" centres to allow the use of banana plug adapters. The relevant connector part numbers are provided in the design documentation for those who wish to build their Kit with RCA inputs.
Assembling the Modulus-286 Kit requires fundamental mechanics and electronics assembly skills. The main challenge of the assembly is the compactness of this amp, which will challenge those with big hands. The compactness may also test your patience. If this is the case for you, I suggest taking frequent breaks and working slowly. I recommend having these tools on hand for the assembly:
- 5.5 and 7 mm nut drivers or sockets
- 4 mm hex key
- Philips #1 and #2 screwdrivers
- Torx-Plus IP8 (or Torx T8) and Torx T10 screwdrivers
- 2 mm and 3 mm flat blade screwdrivers
- Long needle nose pliers
- Regular needle nose pliers
- End cutters
- Wire strippers
- Crimp tool for quick connect terminals
- Utility knife
- Soldering iron & solder
- Heat gun (for shrinking heat shrink tubing)
- Two-part epoxy (5-minute type recommended)
A machinist's ruler or slide caliper can be handy as well.
- Two Modulus-286 amplifier modules
- One Connex SMPS300RE power supply custom made for Neurochrome
- Chassis with all holes cut and threaded and digitally printed front and rear panels
- Mezzanine plate for power supply
- Connectors, binding posts, mains IEC inlet
- All necessary screws, nuts, washers, and chassis feet
- Power ON indicator LED and series resistor
- All wiring internal to the chassis
- Detailed assembly instructions
The specifications for the Modulus-286 Kit are tabulated below.
|Output Power||2 × 65 W||8 Ω, 1 kHz, < 0.001 % THD+N|
|THD||0.00028 % -111 dB||1 W, 8 Ω, 1 kHz|
|THD+N||0.00044 % -107 dB||65 W, 8 Ω, 1 kHz|
|Output Power||2 × 115 W (one ch) 2 × 105 W (both ch)||4 Ω, 1 kHz, < 0.001 % THD+N|
|THD+N||0.00071 % -103 dB||115 W, 4 Ω, 1 kHz|
|Output Power, BRIDGED (Mono)||1 × 140 W||8 Ω, 1 kHz, < 0.001 % THD+N|
|THD+N||0.00034 % -109 dB||140 W, 8 Ω, 1 kHz, BRIDGED|
|IMD: SMPTE 60 Hz + 7 kHz @ 4:1||-104 dB||32 W, 8 Ω|
|IMD: DFD 18 kHz + 19 kHz @ 1:1||-117 dB||32 W, 8 Ω|
|IMD: DFD 917 Hz + 5.5 kHz @ 1:1||-102 dB||1 W, 8 Ω|
|Multi-Tone IMD Residual||< -126 dB Ref.: 32 W||AP 32-tone, 32 W, 8 Ω|
|Input Sensitivity||1.15 V RMS||65 W, 8 Ω|
|Input Impedance||48 kΩ||Differential and single-ended|
|Bandwidth||< 1 Hz – 76 kHz||1 W, -3 dB|
|Slew Rate||15.9 V/µs||8 Ω || 1 nF load|
|Total Integrated Noise and Residual Mains Hum||23 µV RMS||20 Hz - 20 kHz, A-weighted|
|Total Integrated Noise and Residual Mains Hum||29 µV RMS||20 Hz - 20 kHz, Unweighted|
|Output DC Offset Voltage||< 2.0 mV||Typical performance|
|Residual Mains Hum||< -108 dBV < -121 dBV||Right channel Left channel|
|Dynamic Range (AES17)||116 dB||1 kHz|
|Common-Mode Rejection Ratio||78 dB||1 kHz|
|Common-Mode Rejection Ratio||62 dB||20 kHz|
|Damping Factor||>250||1 kHz, 8 Ω|
|Damping Factor||>140||20 kHz, 8 Ω|
|Mains Voltage||120 V and 230 V options available|
|Dimensions Weight||240 × 240 × 100 mm – 3200 g|
The performance graphs for the Modulus-286 Kit (Limited Edition) are shown below.
The results of the THD+N vs output power measurement is shown below for 8 Ω load. This distortion level is well below audible at all frequencies within the audible spectrum. Soft clipping sets in just above 65 W.
The graphs below shows the same measurement repeated with 4 Ω load. As expected, the distortion does increase slightly with the heavier load. With one channel driven, soft clipping is reached at 115 W with one channel driven. With both channels driven in phase, the amplifier delivers 105 W.
I chose to combine the THD+N vs frequency measurement for 8 Ω and 4 Ω loads on one plot for ease of comparison. The measurement was performed just below clipping, hence, at 60 W and 100 W for 8 Ω and 4 Ω loads, respectively.
Not surprisingly, the Modulus-286 Kit does exhibit slightly higher distortion with the heavier load. The graph below shows the THD+N vs output power at 100 Hz, 1 kHz, and 6.67 kHz. This plot may seem a bit out of place here as the Modulus-286 is a Class-AB amplifier. I have chosen to include this measurement to highlight that the THD+N of the Modulus-286 is orders of magnitude better than a typical Class-D amplifier.
Even more indicative of the quality of an amplifier is its THD at low output power. To measure this on the Modulus-286 Kit, I had to use a precision oscillator. This oscillator does add a little mains hum, but otherwise has a very clean 1 kHz output. The harmonic spectrum at 1 W into 8 Ω is shown below. The THD measures -111 dB (0.00028 %).
As mentioned in the introduction, the Modulus-286 Kit can be operated as a mono amp with its two channels bridged. Do note that bridged operation is only recommended for 8 Ω load. Bridged operation below 8 Ω is not recommended. The graphs below show the THD+N vs Output Power and THD+N vs frequency for bridged operation into 8 Ω load.
Siegfried Linkwitz argues that the 1 kHz + 5.5 kHz intermodulation distortion (IMD) measurement is one of the measurements which is more indicative of the perceived sound quality. He bases this argument on the fact that IMD products in this measurement fall in the frequency range where the ear is the most sensitive (see the Fletcher-Munson curves for more detail). I think this argument carries a good amount of weight, so I measured the Modulus-286 Kit accordingly. The measurement is shown below. Note that due to a limitation in the DFD IMD source of the APx525, the frequencies used must be an integer multiple of each other. Thus, I measured at 917 Hz (5500/6) + 5.5 kHz. I performed this measurement at 1.0 W. The result is shown below. Note that the performance of the Modulus-286 Kit is more than 10 dB better than the performance of any of the amps shown on Linkwitz’s site.
The more conventional IMD measurements are shown below. The two plots show the SMPTE (60 Hz + 7 kHz @ 4:1) IMD and DFD (18 kHz + 19 kHz @ 1:1) IMD, respectively. Poor SMPTE IMD is often indicative of thermal issues or power supply issues in the amp. The 18k+19k IMD is indicative of the loop gain available in the amp near the end of the audible spectrum, which can be telling of an amplifier’s sound quality. The Modulus-286 Kit provides excellent performance on both of these measurements.
Audio Precision has developed a multi-tone test signal, which contains 32 tones from 15 Hz to 20 kHz, logarithmically spaced in frequency. This test signal sounds a bit like an out-of-tune pipe organ. It is basically the closest I can get to music with a deterministic test signal. Thus, I argue that this multi-tone signal should be used in an IMD test for the best correlation between measurements and perceived sound quality. The result of this measurement is shown below.
I run this test at levels just below clipping. Note that even the tallest IMD components are more than 125 dB below clipping level. This is likely why the Modulus-286 Kit sounds transparent. This measurement shows that it does not add anything (or at least extremely little) to the source signal, even at levels just below clipping where the amplifier is working the hardest. Also note that the mains-related signal components are 120 dB below clipping level – even when the amplifier is running at clipping levels on the signal peaks. For an amplifier as compact as the Modulus-286 Kit, it shows amazingly low mains hum. All mains-related components are below -110 dBV (3 µV). Even on efficient speakers I hear no hum. The measurement result is shown below.
For completeness, the gain flatness is shown below. The -3 dB bandwidth measures 0.7 Hz – 76 kHz. The gain flatness is +0/-0.3 dB from 20 Hz to 20 kHz.
The Modulus-286 Kit features differential inputs by default. The main advantage of this type of input is that it rejects any hum, noise, and interference coupling onto the interconnect cable connected to the input. The amount of rejection is expressed as the common-mode rejection ratio, which is shown below.
And finally, the output impedance and damping factor are shown below. Note that these measurements were performed at the 5-way binding posts, which represents the worst case output impedance. Even then the output impedance at 1 kHz is just a tad over 30 mΩ, corresponding to a damping factor of 250.